Proposed Constitution Revisions
The following is my suggestion for a revised national Constitution that will enshrine the principles of our new Economic Democracy. It could serve as a starting point for a new Constitutional Summit that can look at how to prevent, for our progeny, the kinds of abuses we have seen under the present Constitution. Sadly, our present Constitution has been rendered a dead letter by the Patriot Act, Patriot Act II and the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012.
To the reader,
The hyperlinked sections in red are linked to and modified by the constitutional amendments that have been ratified to date.
The hyperlinked sections in blue are linked to and modified by the proposed amendments that follow.
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Second Constitution for the United States of America.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;--And
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;-- between a State and Citizens of another State,--between Citizens of different States,--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, the Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.
Attest William Jackson Secretary
done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names, etc.
The Bill of Rights: A Transcription
The Preamble to The Bill of Rights
Congress of the United
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
Note: The following text is a transcription of the first ten amendments to the Constitution in their original form. These amendments were ratified December 15, 1791, and form what is known as the "Bill of Rights."
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.
Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.
Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.
The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
*Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment.
Passed by Congress April 27, 1810. Ratified March 12, 1819.
Note: This amendment was never proclaimed in 1919 by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams (an act of constructive fraud) after Virginia ratified, but this is not required by the Constitution. This amendment was also referenced in at least twenty-four state constitutions at various dates.
If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them.
Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.
Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.
Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
*Changed by section 1 of the 26th amendment.
Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.
Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.
Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.
Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment 21.
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.
Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.
The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.
Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.
Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.
Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.
Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.
Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.
Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.
All laws must be in agreement with the principle to do unto others that which we would have done unto us and to not do unto others that which we would not have done unto us. All of this Constitution and all statutory laws, rulings and judgments that flow from it must be consistent with and abide by this cornerstone law of love.
A Jury of twelve peers is now the supreme pillar of government that supersedes the authority of the Judicial, Executive and Legislative branches. This amendment is intended to ensure accountability of all elected officials and government employees. Jurors shall be of at least the age of twenty-five, randomly selected from census and are not to be excused for any reason other than poor physical or mental health with supporting medical certification, or first-hand knowledge of the matter before the courts. Jurors shall be paid what they earn at their present employment. No elected official or private citizen shall be immune from standing trial by jury to answer to a sustained charge.
The juror's duty is to vote on the innocence or guilt of the charged person and on the Constitutional legitimacy of the charge itself. Jurors shall be the sole arbiters of what evidence will be ruled admissible or inadmissible and may directly question any plaintiff or defendant, the purpose being to arrive at the full truth.
The role of a judge in jury trials is to referee and impose order upon the proceedings, to ensure that the jury decisions and rationale are permanently recorded for judicial review in the public record, and to advise the jury when asked.
Lawyers are not required by either the plaintiff or defendant but either party may retain any councilor they so choose. If they desire but cannot afford council, the state will cover costs. The losing party must bear court costs and financial judgments awarded by the jury where applicable. This will serve as incentive to avoid litigation.
Juries will have only five basic verdicts; innocence, guilty but forgiven, guilty and financial restitution of twice the loss a plaintiff suffers, guilty and banishment from the community to at least two electoral districts away, or guilty and death. If a person is charged and convicted a second time for substantially the same crime whose previous punishment was banishment or restitution, guilty and death shall be the only verdict. Prisons are a breeding ground for criminality and a form of punishment. Our society desires rehabilitation. Criminal records will only be revealed to jurors in the event of a trial so that no citizen will be tainted in the eyes of his fellow man. Let it be known that our mercy is great but our tolerance is low.
All juries must submit a written verdict that articulates their reasoning per the requirements of the Constitution and any statutory law that further refines its meaning. If a statute is found by the jury to be in contradiction to the Constitution, the jury will find the defendant innocent, the statute will be struck down and no restitution will be awarded to any party.
Anyone who acts in collusion with any party described in Section 1 herein is also guilty of Treason.
Any charge of Treason will be heard by a Jury of twelve. The power of Impeachment will have no authority or jurisdiction over crimes of Treason.
To prevent election fraud, all election balloting is to be conducted as follows:
Voters must obtain a voter registration card that must be mailed in advance to the voter's registered address to ensure the vote is applied in the correct constituency;
Each voter may only register in one constituency and administrative steps must be taken to ensure the principle of one person, one vote across the entire nation;
When a voter presents him or herself to vote, they must present valid photo identification and their voter registration card. An elections officer will validate the card against the voter list and confirm the voter's identification with an indicated address that is in agreement with the voter registration card;
Confirmed voters will be given a ballot which contains the names of all eligible candidates, their political affiliation or party, any propositions, a unique ballot identification number and a carbon copy of the original ballot that shall serve as a receipt and proof of their voting decision;
All ballots shall be hand-counted at the voting station by at least three persons and at least two other persons shall witness the proceedings; if any count is in disagreement, there shall be a recount. The results of each ballot shall be entered into a national public database that is accessible by anyone via the internet;
Ballot boxes must not leave the room until they have all been counted, results entered into the national database or local computers for later upload if necessary, tally sheets for each candidate filled out and notarized by the chief elections officer at that voting station, scanned or photographed for later upload to a public database and then gathered into a container that clearly marks the voting station precinct information in indelible ink; the container to be locked with a tamper-proof seal;
Ballots and tally sheets will be sent to a central storage facility and retained for at least three months after the term of office commences, unless the vote is challenged; in which case they shall be retained for one year;
If there is suspicion of vote fraud, challengers must file a notarized Writ of Election Challenge to the county clerk which states the grounds for challenge. A county clerk filing notice must be presented to the county sheriff. The sheriff and challenger shall attend to the central storage facility to secure the premises and verify the integrity of precinct box seals, and commence the recount of each precinct with the chief election officers of each precinct in attendance;
Upon a recount, all precincts shall be recounted and any tally sheets in discrepancy with the originals will be filed on the national database just as the original counts were. If there are irregularities, the sheriff shall undertake an investigation and press any charges for election tampering if warranted.
The seventeenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
To ensure fair elections and honorable conduct in legislatures, all elections must adhere to the following rules and procedures:
No candidate in any federal, state or local election may receive more than $10,000 from any one contributor, whether private or corporate and all contributions must be publicly disclosed;
No contributor may contribute to more than one particular candidate per election;
All candidates will be afforded campaign funding in their electoral district as follows on a daily basis: One quarter-page advertisement in every district newspaper, Four one-minute television spots on every district television station with two in prime time and two in the next best time slot, One sixty-second spot per hour on each radio station;
Advertisements will commence sixty days prior to an election;
An invitation to every publicized debate established for candidates running for that particular office.
Candidates are free to use the internet to campaign any way they see fit and the costs of hosting that campaign on a web server to a maximum of $100,000 will be borne by the state with the provision that only one domain name will be supported and advertising their site on other sites will be constrained to $10,000;
Any act of bribery, unreported campaign contribution or unreported coercion will be considered an act of Treason and all parties to it will face the same punishment;
No political candidate may serve more than one term of office in any federal, state or local government;
The electoral districts for the House of Representatives shall be evenly divided according to population within one percent, based on the last 10 year census and reallocated within a year of the completion of that census; first with regard to state boundaries and then with states immediately adjacent so that where possible the electoral district will be contained within a single border.
Any government civil servant or elected official who engages in an act of malfeasance shall not be immune to prosecution. Any offended party may lay a charge and have them brought to answer at trial before a jury of peers.
Any government civil servant or elected official who engages in an act of misfeasance shall not be immune to sanction or prosecution. Any offended party may report the employee to the employee's supervisor or to their elected representative and that employee will be advised of the complaint. Repeated offenses will be grounds for termination. The intent of this clause is that our government employees are to be servants and not abusers of the people they were hired to serve.
The president of the United States shall not have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States for any reason whatsoever.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; Congress shall make no law or engage in any act abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;
The people reserve the right to peaceably assemble in any public place and for any reasonable duration of time as long as it does not effectively block a thoroughfare and such assembly does not lead to the permanent defacing or destruction of public property; the people may petition the Government for a redress of grievances and any petition containing five thousand signatures or more must be immediately and publically responded to. Such petitions must preempt any government business at hand so that the will of the people is not frustrated by an unresponsive government. If a second petition must be presented by the people for substantially the same grievance, a Jury shall be assembled and those elected officials in government responsible for acting in bad faith will be held accountable; the Jury's ruling shall be final.
No legislation will be voted on within either the Senate or House of Representatives without there being at least two thirds of the representatives of each respective House being present. All legislators present must vote Yea or Nay. Abstentions are not permissible.
The sixteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
The Internal Revenue Service and all tax courts are hereby dissolved, effective immediately.
Section 4 of the fourteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
No person shall be required to pay property tax on any possessions. Any real property purchased in consideration of full payment or acquired by any other lawful means shall be deemed held in allodium by such person and titled accordingly. If a real property has been pledged as collateral for a loan and misfortune should befall the owner so that the real property must be surrendered to satisfy the loan, the real property shall revert back to the owner on the jubilee year that shall fall at the turn of each century and the start of the 50th year of each century. In the event of foreclosure and until the next jubilee, the creditor shall have unencumbered use of the collateral real property.
All sales of real property must be approved by abutting neighbors, as a concession, so as to preserve their property values if the real property is to be rezoned for any purpose other than as used by the present owner. In the event a property is abandoned as unoccupied for a period of seven years or more, any third party may file a petition with the county to acquire the property and after filing appropriate notice to the present titled owner, the county will issue a quit-claim deed and affect the transfer of ownership. If land is owned, it must be put to the use for which it was acquired within seven years or it must revert back to county ownership.
It is explicitly delegated as the county's duty as administrator of public lands to ensure that all those residents who desire property for a homestead shall be satisfied but that such decision to allocate particular tracts of land will be weighed in the best interests of the county at large and for the preservation of nature. Any administrator who accepts any bribe and any person who offers such bribe with respect to land homesteading will be guilty of Treason.
All property presently titled in the name of any government jurisdiction hereby reverts to the beneficial owner.
No private property may be expropriated by any government authority for any reason whatsoever, unless by the full consent and satisfaction of terms which are to be dictated solely by the lawful owner. Furthermore, the same consent and satisfaction of terms must be granted and received by all the abutting property owners lest their property values be diminished by the use for which it is being expropriated without receiving just compensation.
All land presently deemed federal or state public land is hereby acceded to the counties in which each tract of land presently resides. If there be no county interest, the land shall be evenly partitioned and granted to the abutting counties within state lines. Each county government shall administer the land and decide its best use in consideration of the best interests of its immediate residents.
A person's labor is that person's private property and held in allodium.
All fictitious persons, also known as nom de guerre or natural persons attributable to flesh-and-blood human beings are hereby declared null and void. All legislation that presently refers to persons or natural persons shall be deemed to refer to a human being.
The Fourteenth Amendment Section 1 is hereby rescinded in its entirety as a violation of the previous section amendment. There is only one form of citizenship in the United States of America and that is the citizen of the State in which they are born who is also by extension a citizen of these several United States.
All District of Columbia jurisdictions are hereby granted statehood. The federal capital of Washington is a state that has the special distinction of being the seat of the federal government.
All Native American Indian treaties that have ever been entered into shall be brought forth by surviving tribe members who can prove their heritage and the treaties will be honored to the fullest extent possible. If they cannot be honored for practical interests that meet the greater good of all affected parties, an alternate treaty will be renegotiated that meets the spirit and intent of the original treaty. Public lands are appropriate negotiable lands for treaty settlement purposes. Treaty lands will be in the same states of the original grant and be of a character and quality that was originally granted. Any disputes will be resolved by a jury of 12 of which half shall come from the tribe population and half from the electoral district in which the dispute occurs and members will be selected at random per article XXIX requirements.
The National Credit Office is hereby established and commissioned as follows:
Regulate the issuing and retiring of all of the nation's supply of money with the express goal of optimizing the efficiency of the nation's consumption of its own production;
Pay for its own operations out of funding issued by itself based upon an approved budget;
Provide all funding necessary for the operation of all federal, state and local governments; to be issued to same upon ratification of their budgets by their duly elected legislative assemblies;
Operate autonomously from all other branches of government so as not to be under any external corrupting influences. Any officer or employee of the National Credit Office who is found guilty of committing any act of misfeasance shall be terminated immediately. Any officer or employee, along with any external accomplices found guilty of engaging in any act of malfeasance shall be guilty of Treason;
Establish a Bureau of Economic Statistics that shall measure on a quarter-annual basis: The costs of production attributable to wages, earnings, dividends and any other expenditures that put purchasing power directly into the hands of domestic consumers; All other costs of production which by definition do not add consumer purchasing power; The cost of all goods and services produced which presumably add up to the sum of the first two statistical items and thus the amount of effective demand needed in the economy; The price of all goods and services consumed by the nation; The price of all goods and services imported and exported; The ratio of production to consumption to assist in regulating the issue of effective demand; The ratio of imports to exports to assess the balance of trade;
Establish a Bureau of Imports and Exports whose mandate is to ensure that the nation's trade with partner nations is balanced and fair. This bureau is empowered with the ability to levy import and export taxes to enforce fair trade policy;
Establish a bureau of bank regulation to audit and monitor the nation's banks to ensure that they lend money at interest only in proportion to funds on hand;
Issue interest-free loans to producers and consumers with the express mandate of maximizing the nation's self-sufficiency in every industry, by optimizing the efficiency of the nation's production of goods and services and encouraging domestic production of all of the nation's wealth, so as not to be beholden to any foreign nation;
Issue any shortfall in effective demand needed by consumers to meet the price of producers; to be paid into circulation as a national dividend to every citizen over the age of eighteen and as a national sales credit payable only to residents of the nation for the purchase of consumer goods and services. National dividends shall be credited directly to the domestic bank accounts of residents as so directed by them. National sales credits shall be credited directly to consumers at the point of purchase. Administrative steps must be taken to prevent fraud. Any conviction for fraud will result in the suspension of the National Dividend of the guilty party or parties for not less than one year for the first conviction and an additional year added for every conviction thereafter, in addition to restitution judgment as the jury sees fit.
The National Credit Office shall be reviewed annually by a random Jury of twelve people who:
Appoint independent auditors at their complete discretion who will be empowered to fully scrutinize all of the computers, records, contracts, documents and any information they deem necessary to conduct a thorough review;
Approve the next year's funding budget as submitted by the National Credit Office;
File criminal charges against any person or persons found engaged in any acts of malfeasance with respect to the integrity of the nation's money supply;
Fire any person or persons found engaged in any acts of misfeasance;
Review the accounting firm's findings and recommendations and release a public report summarizing all of their collective findings.
The Federal Reserve Act and all subsequent revisions are hereby repealed and the Federal Reserve is hereby ordered dissolved. All currency issued to the public, but not in the possession of banks and financial institutions, as Federal Reserve Notes will be converted to money issued on par by the National Credit Office, as will all bank deposits of US residents. Fractional reserves are hereby outlawed. Money may only be loaned at interest which is actually on hand by the lender and whose use of same has been given up to the creditor.
The following sentence shall be added to all oaths of office; "I hereby renounce all oaths I have previously taken and the benefits afforded by them in favor of this higher office and higher cause. I hereby declare those previous oaths to be <then specify>." A violation of the oath of office is an act of Treason and shall be dealt with accordingly.
Any person serving in the military or working in any public institution under a chain of command who is presented with an order that they know in full conscience to be a violation of their oath of office, may disregard that oath by advising their superior of the grounds for disobeying the order and at the earliest convenience, informing that superior's superior of the incident. That person shall be held harmless for such disregard for orders. The superior who issued an order that violates the oath of office shall be brought to trial to face a jury of 12 for the charge of treason.
The 22nd amendment Section 1 shall be further amended to allow only one term of office for the President and Vice President. All Congressmen, Senators and Supreme Court justices are also to only serve a single six-year term of office and will be ineligible to hold that office for a second term.
Executive orders of our Presidents are edicts of a king and they have no place in our Republic. All executive orders issued to date are hereby declared null and void. No executive orders are permissible by any elected official or holder of any public office from this day forth.
All legislation proposed by the House of Representatives and the Senate shall contain of only one essential item of business. No tagging of unrelated appropriations or legislation is permitted. Each piece of legislation shall be preceded by a single cover page that concisely states the purpose and substance of the bill.
All statutory laws that have been written to date and that contain more than one essential item of business per Section 1 shall be declared null and void.